|Katharina von Kellenbach|
Article: What's wrong with the movement for genital autonomyOn July 9th of 2014, Katharina von Kellenbach published an article on Feminist Studies on Religion, titled "What's wrong with the movement for genital autonomy". In this article, Katharina attributes the creation of the Genital Autonomy to the Cologne case of 2012 which led to temporary age restriction of circumcision in Germany. In this regard, Katharina is wrong, as the genital autonomy movement can be formally traced at least to 1970 in Florida (Van and Benjamin Lewis), although there are individual books and articles (mostly by physicians but also by humanists) prior to this time, mostly in the countries where secular circumcision had become a custom (United Kingdom - Gairdner, 1949, United States - AP Morgan Vance, 1900, and Joseph Lewis, 1949), some as old as 1894 (Elizabeth Blackwell).
Katharina uses double quotes when the descriptions do not match her ideal view of reality. For example in reference to the Cologne case, she uses double quotes when she writes the words "grievous bodily harm". These were the words used by the local judge in Cologne to describe the condition of the Muslim child, who had to be put under general anesthesia and operated as a result of the injuries sustained during and as a consequence of his circumcision.
Genital Integrity in EuropeVon Kellenback's article states that "By December 2012, German lawmakers passed a law defending the right of Jewish and Muslim religious communities to circumcise their sons—though not their daughters."
The law however required a physician or trained practitioner to perform the surgery and limited the maximum age for the surgery (which could be a problem for some Muslim communities). The law allows non-physicians to perform the procedure until the 6th month (something definitively oriented to allow Jewish religious practitioners to perform the procedure). The Bundestag ignored the opinions of the German Academy for Child and Youth Medicine (DAKJ), the umbrella organization of all pediatric associations in Germany (German Society for Child and youth medicine DGKJ, Professional Association of the Child and Youth doctors, German Society for social pediatrics and youth medicine DGSPJ) and relied on the recently released statement of the American Academy of Pediatrics, in spite of the harsh critique by most European medical associations.
Von Kellenback then writes: "This spurred a movement across Europe that demanded the protection of boys’ bodily integrity in the name of gender equality. Their declarations and websites use gender-neutral language and declare “genital autonomy” a “fundamental right of each human being,” which includes “personal control of their own genital and reproductive organs; and protection from medically unnecessary genital modification and other irreversible reproductive interve."
In this paragraph we can see again the use of double quotes around the words "genital autonomy" and "a fundamental right of each human being" which seems to denote her disagreement with those expressions.
Ayan Hirsi AliVon Kellenbach extends her critique to "Somali anti-Muslim activist Ayan Hirsi Ali, never known to shy away from controversy". Apparently the feminist branch of Von Kellenbach does not extend its compassion to women who have been subjected to female genital mutilation and death threats by religious extremists from patriarchal groups, if said women criticize male circumcision. (Shortly after posting the article online, the comments section was closed due to "continued ad hominem attacks" - this didn't prevent Katharina from employing ad hominem attacks and generalizations throughout her article, most notably this one on Ayan Hirsi Ali).
While von Kellenbach initially quotes many scientific facts from intact positive websites, she then goes on a religious-politic tirade, neglecting to address rationally any of the facts she previously quoted.
IroniesIn ironic terms, Von Kellenbach assumes that the Genital Autonomy movement "aims to outman the political battle against FGM" and seems to mock the movement by saying that "suddenly, men must be rescued from marginalization and traumatization". In this she ignores that the Genital Autonomy movement aims to protect all children, not adult men (or women for the matter). The Genital Autonomy movement also aims to protect intersex children, often the victims of horrific medical experiments. In fact, in the United States, the Genital Autonomy movement represented in Intact America, was one of the first organizations to oppose the Policy Statement on Ritual Genital Cutting of Female Minors of the American Academy of Pediatrics in 2010, one statement that tried to argue for allowing American pediatricians to perform a ritual nick on the genitals of female minors to appease parents from regions where female genital mutilation is practiced.
Von Kellenbach commits a logical fallacy frequently repeated by critics of the Genital Autonomy movement, in misrepresenting that male circumcision is considered by intactivists to be biologically equivalent to female genital mutilation. The intactivist argument is explained to be on an ethical level: non-medically indicated procedures that remove part of the external genitalia of a minor who has no need for the procedure, did not consent to it and cannot remove himself or herself from the situation, performed mostly to appease the cultural or religious traditions of the parents, in spite of real existent risks and harms.
Feminism?Von Kellenbach goes on to say that "The gender-neutral code of “genital autonomy” serves to conceal the “seamless garment” of coercive violence that aims to control women’s sexual and reproductive bodies.". In this she ignores that historically secular circumcision and secular female genital mutilation were implemented in English speaking countries during the 19th century to punish children for touching their genitals (control of their sexual bodies) and that it was known, even to ancient Jewish philosophers and physicians, that circumcision "excised the superfluous pleasure" and "weakened the organ of generation".
She then takes a skewed point of view in writing that "The religious reasons for men’s “mutilation” are fundamentally different from the arguments that drive the wounding of women. Women are cut for aesthetic reasons in order to purify and protect men from promiscuous female sexual pleasure. Women’s pleasure and agency is the target of the knife and it serves no religious signification. Men’s circumcision, on the other hand, does not aim at sensation and potency. On the contrary, men’s virility is enhanced by circumcision and loaded with religious meaning."
First, groups which "circumcise" girls often give a religious meaning to the ritual. It may be the Western position to deny this (perhaps for political correctness), but Muslim women have argued that it is "an honor" and a "purification", in other words, religious values denied by von Kellenbach.
In arguing that women are cut for aesthetic reasons, Von Kellenbach also ignores the globality of the debate. It is often heard from pro-circumcision women in the United States especially, that circumcised penises look "prettier", that "uncircumcised" (intact) penises "look weird, gross, ugly, dirty, like an anteater, like an elefant trunk, are smelly", etc, in other words, aesthetic reasons, and intact males are ostracized in some communities, i.e. considered children in Africa, called "supot" to ridicule them in Philippines, and supposedly made fun of in the locker room in the United States.
Katharina argues that "Men’s circumcision, [...] does not aim at sensation and potency. On the contrary, men’s virility is enhanced by circumcision". In this she ignores not only the writings of Philo and Maimonides, but also scientific studies by John Taylor, Sorrells, Bronselaer and Frisch.
In stating that "God seals the covenant with Abraham promising him progeny, land, and everlasting life" von Kellenbach seems to ignore that not all the world ascribes to the Judeo Christian tradition and that babies are not aware of these dogmas when they are subjected to such "covenant".
Von Kellenbach then compares "The sacrifice of (fore)skin" to "the pain and blood of breaking the hymen", comparison that ignores that women have a right to choose if, when and with whom they will break their hymen, a right to genital autonomy not granted to baby boys who unwillingly undertake their "sacrifice".
Strange for a feminist, von Kellenbach then writes that "Male circumcision and the penetration of women constitute the basis of the “covenant between me and you, and your offspring after you throughout their generations as an everlasting covenant.”". In this statement women are sexually objectified and conceptualized as valuable only for their reproductive power.
Uncircumcised men?In her opinion, "The movement to criminalize ritual circumcision is spearheaded by uncircumcised men who feel morally obliged to protect innocent boys from “ancient stone age rituals”". This, of course, ignores the testimonials of men of all nationalities who were hurt physically and psychologically by their circumcision and continue to push for the age restriction of the procedure, such as Richard Duncker of Men Do Complain (UK), Christian Bahls, president of Association of Children Victims Affected by Violence Against their Physical Integrity (MOGiS eV), Eran Sadeh Israeli founder of "Protect the Child" and many others.
Von Kellenbach goes on to say that "It is Christian men who want to prevent the medically unnecessary suffering of Muslim and Jewish boys" - Again, this is an attempt at creating a division that does not exist. There are Jewish, Muslim, African, Christian, American, Atheists, Pagans and men and women of all races, nationalities and faiths, expressing their opposition to circumcision. The attempt to re-frame and create this division is simply an attempt to frame the opposition to circumcision with anti-Semitism, something far from the truth.
Another common way to derail the discussion, used also by von Kellenbach, is to argue that the arguments against circumcision are simply emotional. This is simply countered by the opposition of medical associations, the existing studies showing the negative effects, not only the sexual effects, but also the traumatic effect of neonatal pain.
Von Kellenbach keeps trying to divide the readers by arguing that "Feminists, who work against sexual violence, such as FGM, are recruited into campaigns to outlaw gender-neutral ritual circumcisions". In other words, feminists do not join the movement for genital integrity, they are recruited, they are deceived, with the purpose of "criminalizing Muslim and Jewish minorities" (and she still has the nerve to say that the arguments against circumcision are emotional!)
So basically, in von Kellenbach's view, the genital integrity movement is created by European uncircumcised Christian men who recruit feminist women with the purpose of criminalizing Muslim and Jewish minorities. Perhaps Ms. von Kellenbach should visit the United States and speak with some of the intactivists here before writing about a movement that she evidently didn't take the time to understand and learn about.
ConclusionsShe concludes that "Feminists should insist on the fundamental difference between male and female circumcision and speak out against criminalizing male circumcision in countries where such bans serve to marginalize religious minorities." So feminists should insist in denying the rights of male baby boys to their physical integrity.
It is sad when one has to argue for the physical integrity of children against political and religious entities and individuals who insist on being dense in ignoring the pain, trauma and vulnerability of babies. Of all babies, regardless of their gender.
You say that male circumcision and FGM can be only compared on ethical and not biological grounds. However, some argue that male circumcision can be compared to so called type 1A FGM. After all, male circumcision removes erogenous tissue, so there are some biological similarities to type 1A FGM.ReplyDelete
I understand what you are saying. The problem with the biological comparison is that people are too blinded by the way the WHO and the UN framed the issue of FGM. People tend to assume that all FGM are infibullation and excision, so even when you try to explain to them otherwise, it is quite difficult to get through, after all, who are we, grassroots activists, to contradict the WHO and the UN?Delete
They were very successful in the way they presented their propaganda, you know. The WHO's first document about FGM, from 1989, didn't even consider removal of the clitoral hood as mutilation, but you can only learn about that from Islamic pro-FGM websites. I actually found the PDF of the scanned document, but it's not searchable, it's a scan straight from printed material.
The ethical comparison is undeniable, which is why we need to use it rather than get stuck on biological comparisons that people decline to understand.
However, for me, since I'm very interested in the topic of intersex, it has been quite an eye opener, that in virilized genitals of biological females, the prepuce acts very much like the male prepuce, and in feminized genitals of biological males (severe hypospadias), the foreskin takes the shape of the clitoral hood.
I have actually seen the way they perform clitoroplasties (clitoral reduction to "feminize" the appearance of "virilized" genitals on biological females), another procedure that violates the right to physical integrity of children. And after removing most of the erectile tissue of the clitoris and suturing the now floating glans to the surface, they proceed to "reduce" the clitoral hood.
And what is it called when a doctor reduces the clitoral hood of a female? Female circumcision of a minor. A procedure in theory prohibited, particularly because there is no real medical necessity.
The same procedure has been applied to biological males with severely feminized genitals to "reassign them as females" - something often catastrophic.
Yup, we have professional mutilators in our medical communities and we don't even realize it.
Apologies, 1979. Here's the scan. Scroll to page numbered 54 (which is actually page 62 of the PDF file). URL: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/emro/tp/EMRO_TP_2.pdfDelete
The document is called "Traditional practices affecting the health of women and children" (with time they would start referring only to woman and girls).
The section is called: "Damage to physical health from pharaonic circumcision (infibulation) of females - A review of the medical literature", by Dr. Robert Cook, regional adviser, maternal and child health, WHO Easter Mediterranean Region.
"Type I. Circumcision proper. The circumferential excision of the clitoral prepuce, analogous to male circumcision. It is known in Muslim countries as the sunna circumcision. It is also sometimes practiced in the United States to counter failure to attain orgasm on the part of the woman associated with redundancy or phimosis of the male prepuce (Rathmann, Wollman)."
"As it has not been reported to have any adverse health consequences, this review is not concerned at all with this form of female circumcision."
Notice that the classification of FGM has changed since that time.
Thanks, I see your point now. However, I read a lot German websites that speak against male infant circumcision. They often use the argument of pain when denouncing this procedure. Religiously motivated male infant circumcision was made legal in Germany a couple of years ago after they agreed that 1) it should be performed within the first 6 months of life and 2) local anesthetic should be applied. However, 2) has been now strongly criticized because topical anesthetics do not work and the cremes used are not event meant to be used on the penis of an infant.Delete
So, while a lot of activists in the US use the ethical argument, in Germany they like to use the argument of excruciating pain. Both are valid, but it seems to me that the argument of pain might be a tougher sell in the macho culture of the United States.